What Is Porcelain Stoneware Made Of?

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Ceramic granite is an artificial building material. There is a version that it was invented by mistake when the wrong base was mixed for making ceramic tiles. Perhaps it’s just a beautiful legend. But here are the facts: in the late 1970s, Italy established the production of this material, called “gres porcellanato” — which means: stone and porcelain ceramics.

Initially, only factory workshops, airports and military units were decorated with slabs of the new material, since it is resistant to wear, withstands temperature changes (from +50 to -50 C) and almost does not kill. Back then, it was mostly dark gray and nondescript. Later, interior designers drew attention to the new material and porcelain stoneware began to gain popularity. Learn more about porcelain stoneware in the material aif.ru . 

What is porcelain stoneware made of? 

There is no granite chips in the composition of porcelain stoneware, as many mistakenly think. It consists of components such as white refractory clay, kaolin, mineral dyes, quartz sand and feldspar. This mixture is sent under a press and plates are formed in which no voids or air bubbles remain. After that, the plates are sent for firing. The temperature reaches 1300 degrees, which is 300 degrees hotter than in kilns for firing ordinary ceramic tiles. At the final stage, enamel is applied — for beauty. 

Metal oxides are used for staining porcelain stoneware, and this is reflected in the price of the building material. The most expensive color is red, it is slightly inferior to blue and , and beige and gray are the cheapest. 

The main advantage of porcelain stoneware is its durability. It is durable: This is an ideal option for use in high-traffic areas such as halls of institutions, shopping malls and metro stations. But it is also used no less actively in the home interior.

What are the types of porcelain stoneware?

Porcelain stoneware of the same format is often found in designs, but with different types of surfaces. Experts distinguish:

— natural (also known as matte) — this porcelain stoneware is not processed after the firing process and its surface is slightly rough to the touch, 

— glossy (also known as polished) — smooth texture, a significant disadvantage: in rooms with high humidity it quickly becomes slippery,

— lappated (also known as semi—polished) – consists of mixed areas, both matte and polished,

— satin — this type of porcelain stoneware is treated with mineral salt, which results in a special surface, velvety to the touch and with a soft shine,

— textured (also known as structured) — three-dimensional decor with a small relief, often made “under wood” or “under plaster”, with stripes or complex ornaments, and this kind definitely does not slip,

glazed — the glaze can be both glossy and matte, but this type of porcelain stoneware also has a disadvantage: the more often you wash these tiles, the faster the glaze fades.

What is the difference between porcelain stoneware and tile?

A report by the American National Institute of Standards reports that one of the main differences between porcelain stoneware and ceramics is a higher density due to the content of smaller particles of kaolin clay. Therefore, porcelain stoneware is less likely to crack or split. On the other hand, because of the same density, it is much more difficult to cut it than tiles. 

Also, moisture does not penetrate into the porcelain stoneware at all. It has zero water absorption according to the standard. The tile is more porous and, despite the glaze coating, absorbs moisture. This leads to deformation and destruction of the tile.

Durable and durable porcelain stoneware can be used both for interior decoration and for outdoor work. Designers appreciate it for this and use it for cladding, for example, cafes and restaurants, in which the interior smoothly transitions to an open veranda, creating a fashionable space — open space. Tiles on the street won’t last long.


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